# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

When you consider numericals currently, the first thing that comes to mind is the decimal system we use daily. This method, however, is not the only fashion to depict numericals. There are a lot of methods used by different cultures around the world that use all types of characters. One such method is Roman numbers.

Given that ancient Rome, Roman numbers have become a method of writing numericals using a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. It persisted across the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still taught in school, that is probably why you have come across this post.

Now, we are gonna to look at Roman numbers, what they are, how they function, and how to convert Roman numerals to normal numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

Primarily, let's look at a quick look at the history of Roman numerals. Roman numericals were first utilized by the historic Romans, as you may have guessed from the name. They were utilized in many aspects of the Roman world, including business, architecture, and even warfare.

Currently, its widespread use is primarily attributed to artistic reasons. You may have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, chapter numbers, page numbering, copyright dates, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman numeral system consist of numbers utilizing a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are blended to make groups that depict numbers. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, represent the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, separately. You can then blend these numbers to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Although the decimal system is founded on the concept of place value, Roman numbers are founded on cumulative and subtractive principles. This refers that a Roman numeral's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its individual parts. Another key difference is that the decimal method is established on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are based on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's take a look at a few interactive examples of Roman numbers.

The video game street fighter IV was released in arcades back in 2008. If we look at the number in the name, we see it has a V in it. This is because the number 5 in Roman number is described by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Hence, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series using the characteristics we will talk about subsequently in the article.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the last entry in the original trilogy. Observing the value represented, it contains a V followed by an I. Thus, we will add a 1 to the value of V, that is 5, concluding this Star Wars movie is the 6th episode in the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is essential to understand the numeric value of all the letters. To help make this function easy, here is a chart with every Latin characters with allocated numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Change from Roman Numerals to Decimal Numericals

Considering we have the handy table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that data to change numericals back and forth simply. Following these steps, you will convert these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Transform Roman numerals to Regular Numericals

To convert Roman numbers to regular numericals, we will utilize the additive and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then sum the both values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is higher in value, subtract the Roman numeral on the right from the Roman numeral to its left.

All you must do now is repeat this process until you reach the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's take a look how you can convert Roman numbers with a some examples.

### Example 1

Consider the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is lesser than 50, we sum the both values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we sum the both values and the result is 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Because 1 is less than 75, we sum the both values and the result is 76.

We cease here at the end of the Roman numeral group. Therefore, the Roman number LXXVI is as same as the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Consider the Roman number MCMIII.

Begin with the leftmost Roman number, that is M or 1000.

The Roman numeral to its right is C or 100. Because 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value stands at 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we add the both values and we find 1901.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Given that we have reached the end of the Roman number group, we stop here with our answer. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is as same as the regular number 1903.

With this knowledge and a some practice, you will transform Roman numerals to decimal numbers like a pro!

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